Animal Subjects in Research
Policy for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals in Experimentation | Policy 14.0
General education is the foundation of the undergraduate collegiate experience at Tennessee Technological University (TTU). It encompasses the broad range of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that distinguish an educated citizen who is capable of professional success and societal engagement.
General Education Program
The TTU General Education program is founded on the principle that all students should develop college-level competencies and perspectives that enhance their professional and personal lives. It connects a wide range of traditional academic disciplines and seeks to highlight the relationships among bodies of knowledge, developing the cognitive process of reasoning essential for productive lives and self-directed learning. Specifically, these attributes may be obtained through studies in communication, mathematics, social/behavioral and natural sciences, and humanities, with the aim of developing a student’s ability
- to think logically, critically, and creatively
- to communicate effectively both orally and in writing
- to read extensively and perceptively
- to explore moral and aesthetic values, social relationships, and critical thinking through the humanities
- to understand the importance of key social institutions, ethics and values, and how individuals influence events and function with others in these institutions throughout the world
- to appreciate creative and aesthetic expressions along with their impact on individuals and cultures
- to express, define, and logically explore questions about the world through mathematics
- to use computer technology to communicate and to solve problems
- to use acquired facts, concepts, and principles of the physical and natural sciences in applying the scientific process to natural phenomena
- to perceive the importance of wellness and values in human life
- to manifest a commitment to lifelong learning
Beyond the General Education core, these abilities are developed further through the curriculum of the major and participation in campus events and activities, all of which support the University’s vision of “producing practical, ready-to-work graduates from a broad range of academic disciplines prepared to compete in a technologically driven world.”
The current structure of the General Education core was developed as a system-wide initiative of the Academic Affairs office of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR), of which TTU is one of six constituent universities, along with 13 community colleges, as described in the 2002 “Proposal for a Lower Division General Education Core” developed by an ad hoc TBR committee . A common rubric of 41 credit hours in six General Education categories was established by the approval of this proposal, effective Fall 2004,as follows:
- Communication 9 credit hours (6 writing, 3 oral)
- History 6 credit hours
- Humanities/Fine Arts 9 credit hours (3 must be in literature)
- Mathematics 3 credit hours
- Natural Sciences 8 credit hours
- Social/Behavioral Sciences 6 credit hours
Common learning outcomes were also established for each category . Courses eligible to fulfill these requirements may be identified by each campus through its regular curricular development and review process, but must also be approved by the TBR General Education Advisory Committee, a statewide committee with members from each TBR campus, which determines whether proposed courses meet the prescribed outcomes set for each General Education area, and otherwise appear to be sufficiently rigorous and not narrowly intended for a particular major or professional training. This approval process at the campus and state-system levels also assures that each course approved for General Education is a college-level course in its content and methods, and sufficiently broad in its focus to be beneficial to a wide range of students. All TTU students are required to complete ENGL 1010 and ENGL 1020, a course in oral communication (SPCH 2410 or PC 2500), and, as part of the nine-hour requirement in humanities/fine arts, at least one approved literature course (ENGL 2130, 2230, or 2330). The complete list of courses approved for the TTU General Education Core as of Fall 2014 is published in the university Undergraduate Catalog .
General Education oversight and procedures
The TTU General Education Committee is a subcommittee of the University Curriculum Committee and has oversight of the TTU General Education curriculum as well as authority to recommend exceptions, substitutions, and appropriate transfer credit for courses taken at other institutions. The Committee also conducts the annual assessment of “core competencies” in writing, oral communication, mathematics, and critical thinking. The Committee is comprised of faculty, administrators, and academic advisors from all academic units on campus, including a representative from a regional office of Extended Education programs . The procedures that apply specifically to proposing additions to the TTU General Education core is available on the TTU web site . As described in the Committee’s guidelines , it works with faculty who wish to propose courses to develop syllabi that meet the prescribed learning outcomes and represent a college-level experience. A recent example, EXPW 2015 (Concepts of Health and Wellness), was developed from an early proposal that did not appear to have sufficiently college-level content and scope to an improved version that was recently approved by the General Education Committee and the University Curriculum Committee, and now awaits approval by the TBR committee .
All baccalaureate programs at Tennessee Tech include a 41-hour General Education foundation that includes at least one course from humanities/fine arts, social/behavioral sciences, natural sciences, communication, history, and mathematics. These courses have been reviewed and approved for college-level content and for contributing to the broad knowledge and understanding essential for continued growth and professional success. Tennessee Tech University is therefore in compliance with CR 2.7.3.
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee provides for and protects the welfare of laboratory animals used for research and pedagogy as set forth by the University and in accordance with the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158, and its amendments from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 9 CFR 9, Parts 1-3. The committee membership includes faculty, administrators, a veterinarian, and a community representative. The Committee reports to the Administrative Council.
The use of laboratory animals in research and/or instruction must be in accordance with University procedures as established by the committee.
Guidelines for the implementation of Federal and Institutional Policy(ies) follow.
Approved by the ICCULAE - March 4, 1999
Approved by the Administrative Council - April 5, 2000
Approved committee name change to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)- Sept. 16, 2010
Public Health Service Policy and Government Principles Regarding the Care and Use of Animals
The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals was updated in 1996. In the policy statement, the PHS endorses the U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training (reprinted below), which were developed by the Interagency Research Animal Committee. The PHS policy implements and supplements these principles. Information concerning the policy can be obtained from the Office of Research.
Principles for the Care and Use of Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training
The principles below were prepared by the Interagency Research Animal Committee. This committee, which was established in 1983, serves as a focal point for federal agencies' discussions of issues involving all animals species needed for biomedical research and testing. The committee's principal concerns are the conservation, use, care, and welfare of research animals. Its responsibilities include information exchange, program coordination, and contributions to policy development.
U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training
The development of knowledge necessary for the improvement of the health and well-being of humans as well as other animals requires in vivo experimentation with a wide variety of animal species. Whenever U.S. Government agencies develop requirements for testing, research, or training procedures involving the use of vertebrate animals, the following principles shall be considered; and whenever these agencies actually perform or sponsor such procedures, the responsible Institutional Official shall ensure that these principles are adhered to:The transportation, care, and use of animals should be in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) and other applicable Federal laws, guidelines, and policies.*
- Procedures involving animals should be designed and performed with due consideration of their relevance to human or animal health, the advancement of knowledge, or the good of society.
- The animals selected for a procedure should be of an appropriate species and quality and the minimum number required to obtain valid results. Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation, and in vitro biological systems should be considered.
- Proper use of animals, including the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, and pain when consistent with sound scientific practices, is imperative. Unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in other animals.
- Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia. Surgical or other painful procedures should not be performed on unanesthetized animals paralyzed by chemical agents.
- Animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain or distress that cannot be relieved should be painlessly killed at the end of the procedures or, if appropriate, during the procedure.
- The living conditions of animals should be appropriate for their species and contribute to their health and comfort. Normally, the housing, feeding, and care of all animals used for biomedical purposes must be directed by a veterinarian or other scientist trained and experienced in the proper care, handling, and use of the species being maintained or studies. In any case, veterinary care shall be provided as indicated.
- Investigators and other personnel shall be appropriately qualified and experienced for conducting procedures on living animals. Adequate arrangements shall be made for their in-service training, including the proper and humane care and use of laboratory animals.
- Where exceptions are required in relation to the provisions of these Principles, the decisions should not rest with the investigators directly concerned, but should be made, with due regard to Principle II, by an appropriate review group such as an institutional animal care and use committee. Such exceptions should not be made solely for the purposes of teaching or demonstration.
*For guidance throughout these Principles, the reader is referred to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals prepared by the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources, National Academy of Sciences.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee | Procedures
The name of this Committee shall be the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
The Committee shall consist of at least five members.
1. The membership shall include at least:
1. One practicing scientist experienced in research involving animals.
2. One veterinarian (DVM) with training or experience in laboratory animal science and medicine and with direct or delegated program responsibility for activities involving animals at the University.
3. One member whose primary concern is in a non-scientific area (e.g., attorney, ethicist, or member of the clergy).
4. One member who is not affiliated with the University in any way other than as a member of the Committee, and who is not a member of the immediate family of a person affiliated with the University.
2. Other members of the Committee shall be faculty and administrators.
3. Members will serve on three-year staggered terms and may be reappointed at the discretion of the President of the University.
The Committee shall:
1. Inspect all laboratory animal facilities and the University's animal care and use program every six months and submit a written report to the Executive Officer.
2. Make recommendations to the Executive Officer regarding any aspect of the University's laboratory animal programs, facilities, or personnel training.
3. Determine whether proposed research will be conducted in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act and conforms with the University's Animal Welfare Assurance.
4. Determine whether procedures used in research avoid or minimize distress, discomfort, and pain to laboratory animals.
5. Approve procedures that may cause no pain or only momentary or slight pain/distress to the animals. If warranted by the procedure, appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia may be approved for use.
6. Determine if the living conditions of animals are appropriate for the species and contribute to animal health and comfort.
7. Require the availability of medical care for animals as necessary by a qualified veterinarian.
8. Notify (in writing via the Executive Officer) the investigators and the University of its decision to approve or withhold approval of those activities related to the care and use of animals in experimentation. If approval is withheld, the Committee's written notification will include the reasons for its decision and will give the investigators an opportunity to respond in writing or in person or both.
9. Suspend an activity that it previously approved if it is determined that the activity is not being conducted in accordance with applicable provisions of the Animal Welfare Act, the Public Health Service Guide, and the University's Animal Welfare Assurance.
1. Chairperson The Chairperson shall be elected annually from and by the Committee membership at the first meeting of the academic year. The Chairperson shall:
1. Preside at all meetings or designate a member to serve in his/her absence.
2. Prepare and distribute a tentative agenda to Committee members at least three working days prior to the meeting.
3. Provide for the recording of minutes.
4. Call special meetings and appoint ad hoc committees when necessary.
5. Assume responsibility for the preparation of the annual report to the Administrative Council in collaboration with the Executive Officer.
6. Assume responsibility of execution of Committee policies via the Executive Officer.
2. Executive Officer The Executive Officer shall be an administrator in the Office of Research and shall be appointed by the President of the University according to the approved procedure for making such appointments. The Executive Officer shall:
1. Serve as the Institutional/University Officer for the Committee and as the liaison between the University, Committee, and Office for Protection from Research Risks, Division of Animal Welfare, Department of Health and Human Services.
2. Be responsible for the University's Animal Welfare Assurance.
3. Provide an annual report to the Office for Protection from Research Risks, Division of Animal Welfare, describing the activities of the Committee including any changes in membership, dates of inspection, and dates evaluations were submitted to his/her office.
4. Serve as a consultant to the Committee and provide assistance in the conduct of Committee business.
5. Provide administrative support and assistance to the Chairperson in the conduct and coordination of activities of the Committee.
6. Attend Committee meetings, but without voting privileges, unless he/she is a member of the Committee.
7. Receive and prepare research proposals for review by the Committee.
5. Meetings and Attendance
1. There shall be a minimum of one meeting of the Committee each semester. Meetings shall be held in September and in March. Special meetings may be called by the Chairperson as deemed necessary for the performance of Committee responsibilities.
2. Research proposals shall be made available to members for review prior to scheduled meetings.
3. The meeting agenda shall be approved at the beginning of each meeting.
4. A simple majority of the membership shall constitute a quorum.
1. Attendance of members at Committee meetings is expected and required. If a member must be absent, notice should be given to the Chairperson or Executive Officer as soon as it is known, along with the name of the person who will attend for the absent member.
2. The representative for the absent member should have comparable training/background to that of the member. The representative shall not have voting privileges and will not count as part of the quorum.
3. Absence from fifty percent (50%) of regular meetings without due cause will result in a request by the Committee to the President of the University via the Executive Officer for replacement of that member.
6. Amendment of Procedures/Committee Actions
These procedures shall be amended at any regular meeting of the Committee by a majority vote of the membership present, provided that the amendment has been submitted in writing to the members at least one week prior to the meeting where the voting will take place.
7. Parliamentary Authority
The rules contained in the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order, Newly Revised shall govern the Committee's actions.
8. Effective Date of Implementation
These procedures shall become effective upon review by the Administrative Council and approval by the President of the University.
*These procedures cannot be in conflict with the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of 1985, Public Law 99-158, and its amendments from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 9 CFR 9, Parts 1-3.
Approved by the Administrative Council - April 10, 1991
Amendment to Section V.A.1. Approved by the Committee - January 12, 1999
Amendment Approved by the Administrative Council - January 20, 1999
Approved name change to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) Sept. 16, 2010
Process of Application Review for Use of Laboratory Animals in Experimentation
If laboratory animals are to be used in any type of research performance/ training (sponsored or non-sponsored), activities must be in compliance with federal and University policies. The stepwise procedure is as follows:
- Obtain an application from your departmental office or the Office of Research. Read it carefully and fill it out. (Please type or print.) Applications are also available here.
- The completed application for approval to use laboratory animals in experimentation is to be submitted by the Principal Investigator (PI) or Activity Director (AD) to the Office of Research, Derryberry Hall, Room 306. The original and seven (7) copies are to be submitted.
- A quorum of committee members will be notified and allowed seven (7) working days after notification to inspect the application and act upon it, either in the Office of Research or via mail.
- The action of the committee will be sent in writing to the PI or AD.
- If the application is given unconditional approval, in addition to the committee notifying the PI or AD in writing, a memorandum will be sent to the funding agency, if appropriate, letting them know of the approval.
- If an application is given conditional approval, the committee will notify the PI or AD in writing stating clearly what the conditions are. The PI or AD will be given a time limit for meeting or removing the conditions and returning written verification that the conditions have been met or removed.
- If conditions required for approval necessitate full committee review, the chair will call a special meeting to resolve the issue unless it coincides with a regular meeting of the committee. This process will extend the time required for approval by at least five (5) working days. The committee will then send notification as described in Items 4, 5, and 6.
- Full approval of the committee must be obtained before the proposed use of animals is permitted to begin.
- Applicants should allow ten (10) working days for the process of application review to take place and be notified.
- It is the prerogative of the committee to (a) approve the application as presented or unconditionally, (b) approve the application with stipulations or conditionally, or (c) disapprove the application completely.
If an applicant wishes to discuss any part of the process or is unhappy about the committee's decision, the committee stands ready and willing for dialogue and understanding. Call the Office of Research (372-3374) for an appointment with the committee or committee representative or member.
For further information about the requirements and procedures for animal care and use in experimentation, call the Office of Research.