Guide to Student Privacy Rights
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) is a Federal law that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education.
FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children's education records. These rights transfer to the student when he or she reaches the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level. Students to whom the rights have transferred are "eligible students."
- How can I learn how my child is doing?
- Does the University have any written policy about information from student records that can be shared with parents?
- Where can I find out more information about FERPA?
- What records does FERPA cover?
- What does it mean to say a record is "protected" by FERPA?
- What are the exceptions to FERPA's coverage?
- I had easy access to my child's school records; why don't I have the same access to records kept by the University?
- Why do I have limited access to my child's college records when I am paying his/her college expenses?
- How do I provide documentation of my child's dependent status?
- How can I find out my child's grades?
- Will I be notified if my child is put on academic probation or is subject to academic dismissal?
- Will I be notified if my child is hurt or in danger?
- Will I be informed if my child is treated at the Student Health Center or is seeing a counselor in the Counseling Center?
- How will I know if my child is subject to University disciplinary action?
- I've heard about changes in FERPA allowing notice to the public if a student commits a crime of violence. What policy has the University adopted regarding this new provision?
- What about the FERPA provision allowing notice to parents when a student violates drug or alcohol laws? What position has the University taken on this new rule?
- Will I be notified if my child becomes involved with controversial or harmful groups?
How can I learn how my child is doing? (back to top)
The best approach is to ask your son or daughter directly. Communicating with young adults isn't easy. They're not always as forthcoming as we like. The college years, however, are a period of remarkable growth and maturation. The ability and willingness of students to share information and insights usually grows, especially as they acquire the confidence that comes with assuming greater responsibility for their own lives.
Does the University have any written policy about information from student records that can be shared with parents? (back to top)
Yes. Like other colleges and universities across the country, the University is subject to a federal law called the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (also called "FERPA" or the "Buckley Amendment"). FERPA sets privacy standards for student educational records and requires institutions to publish a compliance statement, including a statement of related institutional policies. The University policy (titled "Student Access to Educational Records") is available in the undergraduate catalog or online here.
Where can I find out more information about FERPA? (back to top)
The U.S. Department of Education enforces FERPA. The Department maintains a FERPA Web site (with links to FERPA regulations) at http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/index.html.
What records does FERPA cover? (back to top)
The privacy protection FERPA gives to students is very broad. With limited exceptions discussed below, part 99.3 of the FERPA regulations gives privacy protection to all student "education records." Education records are defined as those records that are directly related to a student and are maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or institution." Examples of student records entitled to FERPA privacy protection are grade reports, transcripts and most disciplinary files. A more extensive list is available in the undergraduate catalog.
What does it mean to say a record is "protected" by FERPA? (back to top)
Unless personally identifiable information from a student's educational record falls under a specified exception, the information cannot be released to third parties (including parents) without signed and dated written consent from the student.
What are the exceptions to FERPA's coverage? (back to top)
There is a detailed list of exceptions at part 99.3 of the FERPA regulations ("education records" defined) and at 99.31. Perhaps the most important exception allows-but does not require-disclosure [of information in student education records] to the parents of a dependent student, as defined in section 152 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986" (part 99.31 (a) (8)). Also, among the records not protected by FERPA are dates of attendance, academic major, and degrees received (see, generally, the Student Access to Educational Records... "Directory Information").
I had easy access to my child's school records; why don't I have the same access to records kept by the University? (back to top)
Under FERPA, the access rights that parents and legal guardians had in the elementary and secondary school setting are transferred to students once a student has turned eighteen or is attending any postsecondary educational institution.
Why do I have limited access to my child's college records when I am paying his/her college expenses? (back to top)
As a parent or legal guardian, you normally can have access to your child's college records. The best way to do so is with the student's consent. Nonetheless, as indicated in the answer to question six, if you claim your child as a dependent for federal tax purposes and can provide documentation that your child is a dependent, the University will give you access to his/her education records, as specified in FERPA (see part 99.31 (a) (8)) and in the Student Access to Educational Records. FERPA does not require colleges and universities to grant such parental access. The university does so as a matter of policy.
How do I provide documentation of my child's dependent status? (back to top)
Different university departments have different procedures. Some may require copies of income tax forms, as specified in the Student Access to Educational Records. It's best to ask the department administrator about pertinent department requirements.
How can I find out my child's grades? (back to top)
Most parents ask their child directly. Doing so fosters trust and a sense of mutual responsibility.
Will I be notified if my child is put on academic probation or is subject to academic dismissal? (back to top)
Information about grades and academic standing is sent directly to students. You can, of course, ask your child to keep you informed about his/her academic performance. See the answer to question 10.
Will I be notified if my child is hurt or in danger? (back to top)
The Student Access to Educational Records states that "prior consent to disclosure of information from student education records will not be required when notice is made to appropriate parties in connection with an emergency, where knowledge of the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of the student or other individuals." We routinely consider parents as "appropriate parties" to notify in such emergencies. For example, if a student living in the residence halls was transported to the hospital in a life-threatening situation, every reasonable effort would be made to notify parents as soon as possible. Parents (along with their student(s) may sign-up for TTU Alert notification system. For information about TTU Alert, visit www.tntech.edu/ttualert.
Will I be informed if my child is treated at the Student Health Center or is seeing a counselor in the Counseling Center? (back to top)
Not normally. In addition to FERPA, state laws and professional ethical codes preclude the University from routinely sharing student medical information and counseling records with third parties, including parents. There are important policy reasons supporting these confidentiality requirements, including the proven therapeutic benefits associated with encouraging students to talk openly and candidly with a physician or counselor–without fear their conversations will be reported to others. Confidentiality, of course, is not absolute. It can be broken (and parents notified as appropriate) if staff members in Student Health Services or the Counseling Center determine that a student poses an imminent danger to himself/ herself or to an identifiable third party.
How will I know if my child is subject to University disciplinary action? (back to top)
Student disciplinary records are protected under FERPA. The best practice is for your son or daughter to inform you about any disciplinary charges directly. Students can also authorize release of all their information in their disciplinary files. Information from the file can then be discussed with a parent or legal guardian upon request. The University disciplinary system is administered by the assistant dean for Judicial Affairs and Mediation Services.
I've heard about changes in FERPA allowing notice to the public if a student commits a crime of violence. What policy has the University adopted regarding this new provision? (back to top)
This recent change in FERPA permits–but does not require–release of final results of campus disciplinary proceedings (reached on or after October 7, 1998) regarding specified crimes of violence or non-forcible sex offenses, as provided in part 99.31 (a) (14) (i) of the FERPA regulations. Consistent with other FERPA requirements, the University has decided to make public, upon request, the identities of individuals found responsible in a campus disciplinary hearing for any crime of violence or non-forcible sex offense specified in the law.
What about the FERPA provision allowing notice to parents when a student violates drug or alcohol laws? What position has the University taken on this new rule? (back to top)
Part 99.31 (1) (15) (i) for the FERPA regulations authorizes–but does not require–disclosure to parents of 'the student's violation of any Federal, State, or local law, or of any rule or policy of the institution, governing the use or possession of alcohol or a controlled substance if (A) The institution determines that the student has committed a disciplinary violation with respect to that use or possession; and (B) The student is under the age of 21 at the time of the disclosure to the parent.' The University has decided to notify parents of students under the age of 21 whenever a student has been found responsible for a first (or subsequent) violation of the University drug policy and a third (or subsequent) violation of the University alcohol policy, including policies enforced by the Office of Residential Life.
Will I be notified if my child becomes involved with controversial or harmful groups? (back to top)
We endeavor to notify parents in emergencies, as defined in the Student Access to Educational Records (see the answer to question 12). Affiliation with a "controversial" or "harmful" group would not normally qualify as such an emergency. The University is a diverse community. Part of the collegiate experience is experimenting with ideas, friendships and affiliations that may strike others as controversial or harmful. Courts even recognize a "right of association" in this regard protected by the First Amendment. Most parents and teachers work hard to help young people develop better decision-making skills. That process continues in the university environment–both in the classroom and in our activity programming. Ultimately, however, adult students must be given considerable freedom to make their own choices and to learn from their own mistakes.